The green sea turtle’s struggle for survival
The green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) is listed as endangered by the IUCN and CITES and is protected from exploitation in most countries where the species nests. Factors threatening its existence are direct harvesting for the consumption of its flesh, boat strikes, egg poaching, and habitat destruction, such as the sandy beaches that form their egg nesting sites. Worldwide, hundreds of thousands of sea turtles a year are accidentally caught in shrimp trawl nets, on longline hooks, and in fishing gillnets. The dramatic increase of tourism on the Carribean island also had a negative impact on the turtle populations.
Turtles may swim more than 2,600 kilometers to reach their spawning grounds, and then return to the beaches on which they were born to lay their own eggs. The green turtle is found on both the Caribbean and Pacific coastlines and can reach a weight of up to a hundred and eighty kilograms. The extensive, shallow continental shelf of eastern Nicaragua is home to hundreds of thousands, possibly millions, of green turtles that forage on the abundant seagrass that grows there. The turtles help to improve the health and growth of the seagrass beds. Although trade in turtles is prohibited, Nicaraguan law still allows the subsistence use of green turtles, and local demands from coastal Indian inhabitants have supplanted the historical export demand. Here the demand for its meat is estimated to involve approximately eleven thousand killings each year. Hunting these turtles is affecting the turtle populations, as the green turtle takes between twenty to fifty years to reach sexual maturity (they may live on to 80 years) and without sexually mature adults, the numbers of these turtles could decline rapidly.