16. Oct, 2019

Do sharks prefer to predate during twilight?

Dawn and dusk are incredibly active times on coral reefs. Together, these twilight, or crepuscular, periods take up only about an hour of each day, but they are extremely important to all reef life. It is a wonderful moment for a diver to hang around along a reef wall to observe these transformations taking place. During daily twilight periods, fish and invertebrates emerge or retreat to their refuges. Diurnal fish leave their overnight resting places and swarm out onto the reef at dawn, returning to these shelters at dusk, while nocturnal fish follow the opposite pattern.

Picture left: Silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) at Jardines de la Reina, Cuba. Wikipedia.

Between one set of fishes going into shelter and their counterparts emerging to feed, there is a period of about 20 minutes when the reef seems absolutely devoid of all life. This slightly eerie period is sometimes referred to as the “quiet time.” One of the reasons for this dead zone in the reef's daily transitional period is the emergence of predators like groupers, tuna, trevallies, barracuda, moray eels and snappers. Probably these hunters are at their most effective during the twilight period when their eyes are attuned to the half-light and this gives them the edge.

Similar to the smaller reef predators, elasmobranchs are assumed to be also more active during low-light twilight periods. A reason why swimmers, snorkelers or scuba divers are often warned to better stay out of the water. Sharks could be more nervous or aggressive at these moments of the day,  because they consider humans as intruders, especially when they start feeding on fishes along the reefs, and they might mistake intruders for their prey or other predators.

According to the research of the shark researcher Neil Hammerslag, generalizations about increased elasmobranch activity during dark periods are currently not supported.  Implying that the dusk and dawn theory might just be a fallacy as far as sharks are concerned. One problem with the theory is that it can only be tested in specific areas, that is along with the shallow areas of the coral reefs, where sharks can be observed when they congregate to hunt on smaller species.  In the open oceans, however, the habitat of most sharks,  little is known about their feeding behavior.  

Another complicating factor is that feeding patterns may vary considerably depending on the species of sharks.  Notice that there are more than 1000 species of elasmobranchs and it remains unknown how widespread possible increases in nocturnal and/or crepuscular activity might actually be in this group of fishes. For example,  the Oceanic shark (Carcharhinus  longimanus)  has the reputation of being a scavenger,  constantly cruising the ocean in search of food, irrespective of transitions between day and night. In contrast, the white tip reef shark  (Triaenodon  obesus)  spends much of its time during the day resting on the floor of sandy caves. At night, however, the white tip transforms in a fierce nocturnal hunter on the reef, that emerges to hunt bony fishes, crustaceans and octopus in groups, its elongate body allowing it to force their way into crevices and holes to extract hidden prey. The Great hammerhead is also believed to hunt primarily at dawn or dusk. Moving over the sandy seabed they swing their heads in broad angles over the sand, so as to pick the electrical signals from their favorite prey, the stingray, with their numerous ampullae of Lorenzini located on the underside of the cephalofoil. The great hammerhead is also seen hunting blacktip sharks during daytime, when these congregate in large numbers in shallow waters. It seems however that they lack the speed necessary to successfully catch these swiftly moving species.  

Investigations have also reported that the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris) often uses waters and sandy bottoms less than 5 m depth, for example, to patrol shorelines at low light levels in order to intercept fishes moving between shallow waters and adjacent areas.

What about other shark species? In this respect its worth to mention here an encounter with the silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) described by  Jeremy Stafford Deitsch *. The silky is an open water shark that occasionally moves into the coral reef area. The encounter took place along the point of Shab Rumi,  an atol in the Sudan where silkies are known to turn up in the late afternoon. When Jeremy entered the water with his snorkel and camera,  two silkies aggressively confronted him. This was shortly after some bottlenose dolphins had also passed the point. Despite frantic ‘kicks of the silkies with my fins, a clunking them with my camera’ the sharks kept pursuit, while making attacks with swift movements.  This kept on even after he sought refuge over the shallow roof of the reef. Luckily, he managed to attract the attention of the  Zodiac operator at the edge of the reef to pick him up. This event probably reflected a coincidence of two factors:  the late afternoon dive when silkies were actively feeding,  and the earlier presence of dolphins triggering an aggressive response to a human entering their territory.

To close, the best advice so far is to be on the alert when you enter areas where sharks are active,  especially in low vision/ and low light conditions. Especially when you dive alone, like UW photographers often do. An aggressive reaction of the shark can be triggered by any event that it associates to interfere with its feeding behavior, either in baited or non-baited dive conditions.

*Jeremy Stafford Deitsch. Red Sea Sharks. Trident Press Ltd. 1990.